The ancient Egyptian civilization was an ancient civilization in Africa on the banks of the Nile. What is Egyptian Civilization and Egyptian History? Herodotus has written that – Egyptian civilization is a boon of the Nile. The direct relation of the people of Egyptian civilization cannot be linked with any modern human race. It was believed that the first civilization on this world was learned in Egypt itself. In the Egyptian civilization, the Egyptians made many wonderful inventions, the most surprising of these inventions is the pyramid. In this civilization, all the people had different religions, deities, deities and temples.
मिस्र का इतिहास को हिंदी में – “Click here”
Egyptian civilization was the first organized civilization (6000-2000) By BC when Sumerian civilization was developing in Sumer At the same time, Egyptian civilization was developing in the valley of the Nile in Egypt. Herodotus has written that – Egyptian civilization is a boon of the Nile. The Nile flows through the heart region of Egypt and fertilizes a land area about 50 km wide and 800 km long. For this reason, the Nile is considered to be the birthplace of Egyptian civilization. Mr. Perry, a renowned human development scholar from the University of London, has elaborated in his book “The growth of civilization” (1928). The gradual development from the human condition of the ancient Paleolithic period to the human condition of the Neolithic period took place only in Egypt. Egypt had such geographical and natural facilities that the people there first invented agriculture. Established the first organized society and art, sculpture Developed painting, writing, astrology etc. These were the people who created the world famous “pyramid”. Tombs were built stupas. Which even today remains a wonderful thing for us people.There was mutual contact between Egypt and Sumer. These people oused to write this type of hieroglyph but different from Sumerian hieroglyph (language) and not on clay tile like Sumerian people but on papyrus reed Papyrus was a bark tree, which originated from the valley of Egypt Was. Nowadays this tree grows only in the northern part of Egypt. The writings written on these papyrus reeds get to know about the history, religion, lifestyle of the people of Egypt. Egyptian kings were not “priestly kings” like the Sumerian kings, But these kings themselves were considered to be the idols of the deity or the descendants of the gods. These rulers were called pharaohs.
Discovery of Egyptian Civilization-
Napoleon Bonafide discovered Egyptian civilization.In 1798 AD, due to the campaign of Egypt’s conquest, a stone inscription was found from the place of Rosita located on the Nile River. The king who lived throughout his political life was called ‘Pharaoh’. As seen, only the order of the king was the law for the people there. Horses and donkeys had an important place in the Egyptian standing army. The Egyptian judicial system was of a high order. The supreme authority of injustice (Emperor Pharaoh) was there, the punishment was very harsh. The one who committed less crime was given monetary punishment and Those who committed more crimes were punished severely, those who gave false testimony were sentenced to death.
Invented by the egyptians
The Nile is the lifeblood of Egypt thanks to the Nile River of what it was in ancient Egypt and what it is in modern Egypt.The Nile used to flood every day.The ancient Egyptians invented irrigation for agriculture by canals and dams, gradually monitoring the annual floods of the Nile.The Egyptians had a good understanding of woodworking, stonework and architecture. They also knew how to cut yarn and weave clothes.They were acquainted with the use of metals like gold,copper,bronze etc.It is estimated that these people made chairs, many types of playing instruments, beautiful beautiful boxes to keep beautiful ornaments and ornaments and many types of lamps.invented of the seas.These ancient Egyptians are also believed to be the inventors of the big ships moving above.The Egyptians are credited with the invention of at least three great things. First – the alphabet of the language, second – the first calendar was created according to Sorgana.The year period of 365 days was considered, divided into 12 months,a month of 30 days was considered and the remaining 5 days were considered as the last holiday of the year. The Egyptians divided the stars of the sky into different constellations. and located 12 zodiac signs.Third- By making mummies of dead bodies and maintaining them for thousands of years.It seems that the Egyptians had a lot of cleanliness in the work of their hands, making everything they made very beautiful and complete. The stone sculptures made by these people, the tombs of the kings and the big stupas above those tombs are beautiful.Which continues to amaze the world even today.
• Egyptian Stupa (Pyramid) – (Egyptian pyramid, one of the seven wonderful objects of ancient times) The Egyptians had their own belief in death. they thought death Even after this, the creature can be awakened from its deep sleep, and their life can become conscious again. This was different from the belief about death that after death the living beings go down to the dark world and there Lives a shadowy life. Due to the Egyptian people having this idea about death, there were beautiful tombs, mummies of dead bodies were kept inside the tombs and making 2 huge stupas over the tombs so that no one could touch the dead bodies, they would not be disturbed. This practice could not continue. The remains of these stupas are still found. The stupas on these mummy tombs were built only for kings and queens. Ordinary people were buried only in modest tombs. Near each pyramid is the temple of the pharaoh, on which the pyramid is located. This style of roof architecture, based on pillars, developed from this style, according to which later the temples of Greece were built.• Mummy – The dead body was ripped out of many parts and its heart, brain was removed by a small instrument and the internal parts of the body were cleaned and washed with many medicines and aromatic substances, then It was made solid by filling it with gold metal and many aromatic substances. As if it were the image of the king itself, in this way the mummy of the dead body was made and kept in a shroud (box) made of superior wood or metal.
Egyptian religion, temples and gods-
These people of ancient Egypt initially had many independent races. Each caste had its own separate deity. People had such an imagination that the body of these gods was like a human body. For example, if the mouth of a god was like a monkey, then someone’s hippotamus, someone’s hawk, someone’s cat was only on the happiness and displeasure of these gods. The happiness and sorrow of the people depended and worship was done to keep them happy. It is estimated that by the year 4300 BC there were only two castes in Egypt and the entire Egyptian region was divided into only two states. Northern Egypt and Southern Egypt. In northern Egypt was the kingdom of a race whose god (Totem) was the serpent (Uraens). Totem Horus (Falcon God) Later, both the kingdoms of North and South Egypt became a united kingdom. The first ruler of North and South Egypt was Menes. In this way, along with the change in the area of administration, there was a change in the state religion, and as soon as a state was established, only one deity became the ruler. The name of this deity was “Re” Devta (Sun God) and this “Re” deity was considered as the paramount deity.This “Ray” deity also had many other names such as Atan, Osiris,
Tah, aman etc. These gods were supposed to give wealth and prosperity to Egypt. The recognition of this paramount deity increased in the rulers of Egypt, but the faith of the common people remained in those old different gods.The Egyptian pharaohs considered themselves to be “Re” (sun) gods – and they were called Suryavanshi. One of the main deities of South Egypt was Moon and many rulers considered themselves to be Chandravanshi. These temples were the center of knowledge, learning, literature, history in ancient Egypt. A famous Egyptian pharaoh (Ikhnatan or Amenophis IV) Whose reign is believed to have started from 1375 to 1375 BC. He tried to convert people to religious belief. He declared that the pharaohs were not the descendants of gods but human people like ordinary people. In this he abandoned the ancient capital of his ancestors, Thebes (in Egypt) and established a new capital named It was Talal-Amarna. He wanted to worship only one deity Aatan by closing the temples of different deities in all the states. Aton was another name of Surya.
Egyptian civilization division of society-
In ancient times, the society of Egypt was divided into three forms, first upper class, second middle class, third lower class.
- Upper class – in which the emperors, feudal landlords, priests, high officials of the state, etc. used to be full of splendor and opulence, their life, they got special respect in the society, they lived in the palaces and huge buildings with splendour.
- Middle class – in which merchants, intellectuals, craftsmen and clerks used to come, their standard of life in the society was also good and they were also respected and respected in the society.
- Lower class – which included farmers, laborers, slaves and poor people, the condition of this class was worrying and their standard of living was of low standard. The farmers did not get the land, the farmers were exploited by the landlords, the condition of the laborers and the slaves was very bad, people of this class were tortured, the big pyramids of Egypt were built by the slaves only.
The lifestyle and food of the Egyptian civilization
The living standard of the people here was very good, the people of the upper class lived in luxurious palaces and the people of the lower class lived in kutcha houses, both women and men wore ornaments, Egyptian women used to adorn many types of beauty. The people here used to be both non-vegetarian and vegetarian. Wheat and rice, fruit, milk, curd was vegetarian food and meat of pigs was used in non-vegetarian food. It is believed that people here also used to drink alcohol. They had respect and respect in the society, they also had political rights, all the land of the family, wealth and property, and only women had the right, here women used to rule over men, there was a practice of marrying but kings were rich people from one another. Could have married more. Sewain says that – no other civilization in ancient civilizations could equal the respect of women in Egypt.
The political history of Egypt is divided into three parts-
- 3400 BC to 2500 BC (Pyramid Age)
- 2500 BC to 1800 BC (feudal era)
- 1580 BC to 1150 BC (New Kingdom)